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Extended Nosology and General Medical Conditions

Perspective - Journal of Contemporary Mediacal Education (2022)

Extended Nosology and General Medical Conditions

 
1Department of Chemistry, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indiana, USA
 
*Corresponding Author:

Stephen Coburn, Department of Chemistry, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indiana, USA, Email: [email protected]

Received: 01-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. JCMEDU-22-66780; Editor assigned: 03-Jun-2022, Pre QC No. JCMEDU-22-66780 (PQ); Reviewed: 17-Jun-2022, QC No. JCMEDU-22-66780; Revised: 24-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. JCMEDU-22-66780 (R); Published: 01-Jul-2022

Description

The discipline of medicine that deals with disease classification is known as nosology. To properly define a medical illness, one must first understand its source (and that there is only one), the consequences it has on the body, the symptoms it causes, and other factors. Because influenza is caused by a virus, it is categorised as an infectious disease, and it is classified as a respiratory infection because the virus infects and damages certain tissues in the respiratory tract. The more information available about the condition, the more nosological classifications are possible.

Nosography is a term used to describe a scenario in order to assign a diagnostic label to it. As a result, there is no need for a single cause for a nosographical entity. For example, inability to talk as a result of advanced dementia and inability to speak as a result of a stroke may be nosologically distinct yet nosographically identical. Several disease classifications have been presented in the past, and almost all of them provide a code to every supported ailment. Some of them utilise a classification tree to codify diseases, while others, like SNOMED, employ a multifactor categorization approach. Diseases can be categorised based on their cause, pathogenesis (the method by which they progress), or symptoms (s). Diseases can also be categorised according to the organ system in question, though this is sometimes difficult because many diseases impact many organs. One of the most difficult aspects of nosology is that diseases are frequently difficult to identify and classify, especially when the cause or pathophysiology are unclear. As a result, diagnostic terminologies frequently solely refer to a symptom or a collection of symptoms (syndrome).

Historically, diseases were classified as syndromes based on their symptoms. They are also defined by the damage they do when more information is revealed. When the cause is known, they are better characterised by it, while their traits remain significant. As a result, a clinical syndrome (pattern of signs and symptoms) can be understood as a nonspecific finding shared by a set of disease entities or endotypes, leading to a branching distinction. For example, concepts like murrain and grippe that were previously undifferentiable to humans and hence viewed as a single disease can now be conceptually unravelled as discrete diseases with comparable clinical manifestations. As a result, nosology is fluid, reclassifying as knowledge progresses. The concept of molecularly defined diseases, characterised by their molecular properties, was introduced with the advent of molecular biology, allowing for even more categorization. Clinical presentations that humans previously perceived as a single disease can be subclassified into a set of disease entities or endotypes, thanks to molecular medicine, which works in tandem with genetics and genomics as components of molecular biology. Nosology, in its broadest meaning, encompasses not only diseases but also any type of medical condition, such as traumas, lesions, or disorders. Medical conditions, like diseases, can be defined by cause, pathogenesis (the mechanism that causes the disease), or a collection of symptoms, medical indicators, and biomarkers, especially when the other two definitions are unavailable (idiopathic diseases). Medical conditions can be classified into disorders, diseases, syndromes, lesions, and injuries, each with its own set of definitions, as stated in Disease Terminology.

Copyright: © 2022 The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.